Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease which is caused by gram-negative bacteria from the Brucella genus. Brucella is classified as risk group III by the WHO. The species Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis were identified in camels. The disease was first described in 1931. Even though clinical symptoms are generally mild in camels, Brucella can be transmitted to humans via fresh milk or raw meat and turn into a serious health problem in the affected regions.
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is caused by a previously unknown coronavirus (MERS-CoV). So far, all human MERS-CoV infections have originated in the Middle East. About 40 % of known cases were fatal. The incubation time ranges from less than a week in the majority of cases to up to 12 days in individual cases. Transmission between humans takes place via aerosols and smear infections. Respiratory secretions of the upper respiratory tract of infected persons play a particularly important role as they can be passed on by sneezing, coughing, and via contaminated hands.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) belongs to the Hepeviridae family and is one of the most frequent causes of acute viral hepatitis in humans worldwide. Epidemic HEV infections often occur in developing countries. However, the number of sporadic cases is also increasing in industrialised countries. While HEV infection in humans is generally self-limiting, pregnant women and infants in developing countries show an increased fatality rate. Immunocompromised patients may develop a chronic HEV infection. Infection generally occurs via contaminated food, for instance, by consumption of contaminated water or raw or insufficiently heated meat or milk from infected animals. Transmission via direct contact with infected animals cannot be ruled out.